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|Greek mythology - 그리스의 신들
"Myths of origin" or "creation myths" represent an attempt to render the universe comprehensible in human terms and explain the origin of the world. The most widely accepted account of beginning of things as reported by Hesiod's Theogony, starts with Chaos, a yawning nothingness. Out of the void emerged Ge or Gaia (the Earth) and some other primary divine beings: Eros (Love), the Abyss (the Tartarus), and the Erebus. Without male assistance Gaia gave birth to Uranus (the Sky) who then fertilised her. From that union were born, first, the Titans: six males and six females (Oceanus, Coeus and Crius and Hyperion and Iapetus, Theia and Rhea, Themis and Mnemosyne, Phoebe and Tethys, and Cronus); then the one-eyed Cyclopes and the Hecatonchires or Hundred-Handers. Cronus ("the wily, youngest and most terrible of [Gaia's] children")castrated his father and became the ruler of the gods with his sister-wife Rhea as his consort and the other Titans became his court. This motif of father/son conflict was repeated when Cronus was confronted by his son, Zeus. Zeus challenged him to war for the kingship of the gods. At last, with the help of the Cyclopes,(whom Zeus freed from Tarturus), Zeus and his siblings were victorious, while Cronus and the Titans were hurled down to imprisonment in Tartarus.
The earliest Greek thought about poetry considered the theogony to be the prototypical poetic genre ? the prototypical mythos ? and imputed almost magical powers to it. Orpheus, the archetypal poet, was also the archetypal singer of theogonies, which he uses to calm seas and storms in Apollonius' Argonautica, and to move the stony hearts of the underworld gods in his descent to Hades. When Hermes invents the lyre in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, the first thing he does is sing the birth of the gods. Hesiod's Theogony is not only the fullest surviving account of the gods, but also the fullest surviving account of the archaic poet's function, with its long preliminary invocation to the Muses. Theogony was also the subject of many lost poems, including those attributed to Orpheus, Musaeus, Epimenides, Abaris and other legendary seers, which were used in private ritual purifications and mystery-rites. There are indications that Plato was familiar with some version of the Orphic theogony. A few fragments of these works survive in quotations by Neoplatonist philosophers and recently unearthed papyrus scraps. One of these scraps, the Derveni Papyrus now proves that at least in the 5th century BC a theogonic-cosmogonic poem of Orpheus was in existence. This poem attempted to outdo Hesiod's Theogony and the genealogy of the gods was extended back with Nyx (Night) as an ultimate beginning before Uranus, Cronus and Zeus.
The first philosophical cosmologists reacted against, or sometimes built
upon, popular mythical conceptions that had existed in the Greek world
for some time. Some of these popular conceptions can be gleaned from the
poetry of Homer and Hesiod. In Homer, the Earth was viewed as a flat disk
afloat on the river of Oceanus and overlooked by a hemispherical sky with
sun, moon and stars. The Sun (Helios) traversed the heavens as a charioteer
and sailed around the Earth in a golden bowl at night. Sun, earth, heaven,
rivers, and winds could be addressed in prayers and called to witness oaths.
Natural fissures were popularly regarded as entrances to the subterranean
house of Hades, home of the dead.
지구의 북쪽에는 휘페르보레오스, 남쪽에는 에디오피아인이 행복한 삶을 누리고 있었다. 또한 서쪽 끝에는 '엘리시온의 들'이라는 복된 토지가 있어, 신들로부터 특히 총애를 받은 인간이 영원한 행복을 누릴 수 있는 곳으로 '행운의 들' 혹은 '축복받은 사람들의 섬'이라 불렀다.
이렇듯 고대 그리스인들은 자기 나라의 동방과 남방의 민족 혹은 지중해 연안 근처를 제외하곤 어떤 민족도 존재하는 줄을 거의 몰랐다. 지중해의 서쪽엔 거인·괴물·마녀들이 사는 것으로 여겼고, 원반과 같은 세계의 주변엔 신들의 특별한 총애를 받은 민족이 행복과 장수를 누리며 사는 것으로 생각했다.
또 해와 달은 대양하에서 떠올라 신들과 인간들에게 빛을 주면서 공중에 달리는 것으로 생각했고, 북두칠성 및 그 근처의 다른 별들을 제외한 모든 별들도 대양하에서 떠오르고 또 그 속으로 지는 것이라 생각했다.
신들의 거처는 테살리아에 있는 올림포스산 꼭대기에 있으며, '계절'이라 불리는 여신들이 지키는 구름문을 통해 신들이 지상으로 출입했다. 신들은 주신(主神)인 제우스가 사는 궁전에 모여 매일 향연을 베풀며 암브로시아와 넥타르를 먹고 마셨으며, 음악의 신 아폴론이 리라를 연주하고 뮤즈 여신들이 노래를 불렀다.
|Roman mythology - 로마의 신들
The Roman model involved a very different way of defining and thinking about gods than that of Greek gods. For example, if one were to ask a Greek about Demeter, he might reply with the well-known story of her grief at the rape of Persephone by Hades.
An archaic Roman, by contrast, would tell you that Ceres had an official priest called a flamen, who was junior to the flamens of Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus, but senior to the flamens of Flora and Pomona. He might tell you that she was grouped in a triad with two other agricultural gods, Liber and Libera. And he might even be able to rattle off all of the minor gods with specialized functions who attended her: Sarritor (weeding), Messor (harvesting), Convector (carting), Conditor (storing), Insitor (sowing), and dozens more.
Thus the archaic Roman "mythology", at least concerning the gods, was made up not of narratives, but rather of interlocking and complex interrelations between and among gods and humans.
The original religion of the early Romans was modified by the addition
of numerous and conflicting beliefs in later times, and by the assimilation
of a vast amount of Greek mythology. We know what little we do about early
Roman religion not through contemporary accounts, but from later writers
who sought to salvage old traditions from the desuetude into which they
were falling, such as the 1st century BC scholar Marcus Terentius Varro.
Other classical writers, such as the poet Ovid in his Fasti (Calendar),
were strongly influenced by Hellenistic civilization models, and in their
works they frequently employed Greek beliefs to fill gaps in the Roman
사투르누스, 파우누스, 키리누스, 벨로나, 팔레스, 플로라, 베스타, 야누스