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Chapter 001 도원결의 01


三國演義 第一回:宴桃園豪傑三結義,斬黃巾英雄首立功


Three Heroes Swear Brotherhood In The Peach Garden; One Victory Shatters The Rebels In Battlegrounds.


詞曰:


滾滾長江東逝水,

浪花淘盡英雄



是非成敗轉頭空:

 青山依舊在,

 幾度夕陽紅


白髮漁樵江渚上,

慣看秋月春風。


一壺濁酒喜相逢:

 古今多少事,

 都付笑談中。


 [三國誌詩001-p01 명나라 양신(1488-1559)]


The waters of the mighty Yangzi flow eastward,

its spray drowning countless heroes.


Right and wrong, success and failure, become empty in the blink of an eye;

green mountains are always present;

how many times has the setting sun been red?


The white haired fishermen and woodcutters are standing on the sand bars near the banks,

accustomed as they are to gazing at the autumn moon and the spring breezes.

 

By chance, they happily meet with a jar of strong liquor in hand;

how many things from past and present have they laughed and talked about with each other?



1.話說天下大勢.分久必合,合久必分:周末七國分爭,并入於秦。及秦滅之後,楚、漢分爭,又并入於漢。漢朝自高祖斬白蛇而起義,一統天下。後來光武中興,傳至獻帝,遂分為三國。推其致亂之由,殆始於桓、靈二帝。桓帝禁錮善類,崇信宦官。及桓帝崩,靈帝即位,大將軍竇武、太傅陳蕃,共相輔佐。時有宦官曹節等弄權,竇武、陳蕃謀誅之,作事不密,反為所害。中涓自此愈橫。


The world under heaven, after a long period of division, tends to unite; after a long period of union, tends to divide. This has been so since antiquity. When the rule of the Zhou Dynasty weakened, seven contending kingdoms sprang up, warring one with another until the kingdom of Qin prevailed and possessed the empire. But when Qin's destiny had been fulfilled, arose two opposing kingdoms, Chu and Han, to fight for the mastery. And Han was the victor.


The rise of the fortunes of Han began when Liu Bang the Supreme Ancestor slew a white serpent to raise the banners of uprising, which only ended when the whole empire belonged to Han (BC 202). This magnificent heritage was handed down in successive Han emperors for two hundred years, till the rebellion of Wang Mang caused a disruption. But soon Liu Xiu the Latter Han Founder restored the empire, and Han emperors continued their rule for another two hundred years till the days of Emperor Xian, which were doomed to see the beginning of the empire's division into three parts, known to history as The Three Kingdoms.


But the descent into misrule hastened in the reigns of the two predecessors of Emperor Xian---Emperors Huan and Ling---who sat in the dragon throne about the middle of the second century.


Emperor Huan paid no heed to the good people of his court, but gave his confidence to the Palace eunuchs. He lived and died, leaving the scepter to Emperor Ling, whose advisers were Regent Marshal Dou Wu and Imperial Guardian Chen Fan. Dou Wu and Chen Fan, disgusted with the abuses of the eunuchs in the affairs of the state, plotted the destruction for the power-abusing eunuchs. But Chief Eunuch Cao Jie was not to be disposed of easily. The plot leaked out, and the honest Dou Wu and Chen Fan were put to death, leaving the eunuchs stronger than before.



2.建寧二年四月望日,帝御溫德殿。方陞座,殿角狂風驟起,只見一條大青蛇,從梁上飛將下來,蟠於椅上。帝驚倒,左右急救入宮,百官俱奔避。須臾,蛇不見了。忽然大雷大雨,加以冰雹,落到半夜方止,壞卻房屋無數。建寧四年二月,洛陽地震;又海水泛溢,沿海居民,盡被大浪捲入海中。光和元年,雌雞化雄。六月朔,黑氣十餘丈,飛入溫德殿中。秋七月,有虹見於玉堂;五原山岸,盡皆崩裂。種種不祥,非止一端。


It fell upon the day of full moon of the fourth month, the second year, in the era of Established Calm (AD 168), that Emperor Ling went in state to the Hall of Virtue. As he drew near the throne, a rushing whirlwind arose in the corner of the hall and, lo! from the roof beams floated down a monstrous black serpent that coiled itself up on the very seat of majesty. The Emperor fell in a swoon. Those nearest him hastily raised and bore him to his palace, while the courtiers scattered and fled. The serpent disappeared.


But there followed a terrific tempest, thunder, hail, and torrents of rain, lasting till midnight and working havoc on all sides. Two years later the earth quaked in Capital Luoyang, while along the coast a huge tidal wave rushed in which, in its recoil, swept away all the dwellers by the sea. Another evil omen was recorded ten years later, when the reign title was changed to Radiant Harmony (AD 178): Certain hens suddenly crowed. At the new moon of the sixth month, a long wreath of murky cloud wound its way into the Hall of Virtue, while in the following month a rainbow was seen in the Dragon Chamber. Away from the capital, a part of the Yuan Mountains collapsed, leaving a mighty rift in the flank.


3.帝下詔問群臣以災異之由,議郎蔡邕上疏,以為蜺墮雞化,乃婦寺干政之所致,言頗切直。帝覽奏歎息,因起更衣。曹節在後竊視,悉宣告左右‧遂以他事陷邕於罪,放歸田里。後張讓,趙忠,封諝,段珪,曹節,候覽,蹇碩,程曠,夏惲,郭勝十人朋比為奸,號為「十常侍」。帝尊信張讓,呼為「阿父」,朝政日非,以致天下人心思亂,盜賊蜂起。


Such were some of various omens. Emperor Ling, greatly moved by these signs of the displeasure of Heaven, issued an edict asking his ministers for an explanation of the calamities and marvels.


Court Counselor Cai Yong replied bluntly: "Falling rainbows and changes of fowls' sexes are brought about by the interference of empresses and eunuchs in state affairs."


The Emperor read this memorial with deep sighs, and Chief Eunuch Cao Jie, from his place behind the throne, anxiously noted these signs of grief. An opportunity offering, Cao Jie informed his fellows, and a charge was trumped up against Cai Yong, who was driven from the court and forced to retire to his country house.


With this victory the eunuchs grew bolder. Ten of them, rivals in wickedness and associates in evil deeds, formed a powerful party known as the Ten Regular Attendants---Zhang Rang, Zhao Zhong, Cheng Kuang, Duan Gui, Feng Xu, Guo Sheng, Hou Lan, Jian Shuo, Cao Jie, and Xia Yun.


One of them, Zhang Rang, won such influence that he became the Emperor's most honored and trusted adviser. The Emperor even called him "Foster Father". So the corrupt state administration went quickly from bad to worse, till the country was ripe for rebellion and buzzed with brigandage.



4.時鉅鹿郡有兄弟三人:一名張角,一名張寶,一名張梁。那張角本是個不第秀才。因入山採藥,遇一老人,碧眼童顏,手執藜杖,喚角至一洞中,以天書三卷授之,曰:「此名太平要術。汝得之,當代天宣化,普救世人;若萌異心,必獲惡報。」角拜問姓名。老人曰:「吾乃南華老仙也。」言訖,化陣清風而去。


At this time in the county of Julu was a certain Zhang family, of whom three brothers bore the name of Zhang JueZhang Ba, and Zhang Lian, respectively. The eldest Zhang Jue was an unclassed graduate, who devoted himself to medicine. One day, while culling simples in the woods, Zhang Jue met a venerable old gentleman with very bright, emerald eyes and fresh complexion, who walked with an oak-wood staff. The old man beckoned Zhang Jue into a cave and there gave him three volumes of The Book of Heaven.


"This book," said the old gentleman, "is the Essential Arts of Peace. With the aid of these volumes, you can convert the world and rescue humankind. But you must be single-minded, or, rest assured, you will greatly suffer."


With a humble obeisance, Zhang Jue took the book and asked the name of his benefactor.


"I am Saint Hermit of the Southern Land," was the reply, as the old gentleman disappeared in thin air.


5.角得此書,曉夜攻習,能呼風喚雨,號為太平道人。中平元年正月內,疫氣流行,張角散施符水,為人治病,自稱大賢良師。角有徒弟五百餘人,雲游四方,皆能書符念咒。次後徒眾日多,角乃立三十六方,─大方萬餘人,小方六七千─,各立渠帥,稱為將軍。


訛言


蒼天已死,

黃天當立。


又云


歲在甲子,

天下大吉。


 [三國誌詩001-p02]


令人各以白土,書「甲子」二字於家中大門上。青、幽、徐、冀、荊、揚、兗、豫八州之人,家家侍奉大賢良師張角名字。角遣其黨馬元義,暗齎金帛,結交中涓封諝,以為內應。角與二弟商議曰:「至難得者,民心也。今民心已順,若不乘勢取天下,誠為可惜。」遂一面私造黃旗,約期舉事;一面使弟子唐州,馳書報封諝。唐州乃逕赴省中告變。帝召大將軍何進調兵擒馬元義,斬之;次收封諝等一干人下獄。


Zhang Jue studied the wonderful book eagerly and strove day and night to reduce its precepts to practice. Before long, he could summon the winds and command the rain, and he became known as the Mystic of the Way of Peace.


In the first month of the first year of Central Stability (AD 184), there was a terrible pestilence that ran throughout the land, whereupon Zhang Jue distributed charmed remedies to the afflicted. The godly medicines brought big successes, and soon he gained the tittle of the Wise and Worthy Master. He began to have a following of disciples whom he initiated into the mysteries and sent abroad throughout all the land. They, like their master, could write charms and recite formulas, and their fame increased his following.


Zhang Jue began to organize his disciples. He established thirty-six circuits, the larger with ten thousand or more members, the smaller with about half that number. Each circuit had its chief who took the military title of General. 


They talked wildly of the death of the blue heaven and the setting up of the golden one; 

they said a new cycle was beginning and would bring universal good fortune to all members; 


and they persuaded people to chalk the symbols for the first year of the new cycle on the main door of their dwellings.


With the growth of the number of his supporters grew also the ambition of Zhang Jue. The Wise and Worthy Master dreamed of empire. One of his partisans, Ma Yuanyi, was sent bearing gifts to gain the support of the eunuchs within the Palace.


To his brothers Zhang Jue said, "For schemes like ours always the most difficult part is to gain the popular favor. But that is already ours. Such an opportunity must not pass."


And they began to prepare. Many yellow flags and banners were made, and a day was chosen for the uprising. Then Zhang Jue wrote letters to Feng Xu and sent them by one of his followers, Tang Zhou, who alas! betrayed his trust and reported the plot to the court. The Emperor summoned the trusty Regent Marshal He Jin and bade him look to the issue. Ma Yuanyi was at once taken and beheaded. Feng Xu and many others were cast into prison.

 

6.張角聞知事露,星夜舉兵,自稱天公將軍,─張寶稱地公將軍,張梁稱人公將軍─。申言於眾曰:「今漢運將終,大聖人出﹔汝等皆宜順從天意,以槳太平。」四方百姓,裹黃巾從張角反者,四五十萬。賊勢浩大,官軍望風而靡。何進奏帝火速降詔,令各處備禦,討賊立功;一面遣中郎將盧植,皇甫嵩,朱雋,各引精兵,分三路討之。


The plot having thus become known, the Zhang brothers were forced at once to take the field. They took up grandiose titles: Zhang Jue the Lord of Heaven, Zhang Ba the Lord of Earth, and Zhang Lian the Lord of Human. And in these names they put forth this manifesto:


"The good fortune of the Han is exhausted, and the Wise and Worthy Man has appeared. Discern the will of Heaven, O ye people, and walk in the way of righteousness, whereby alone ye may attain to peace."


Support was not lacking. On every side people bound their heads with yellow scarves and joined the army of the rebel Zhang Jue, so that soon his strength was nearly half a million strong, and the official troops melted away at a whisper of his coming.


Regent Marshal and Imperial Guardian, He Jin, memorialized for general preparations against the Yellow Scarves, and an edict called upon everyone to fight against the rebels. In the meantime, three Imperial Commanders---Lu ZhiHuangfu Song, and Zhu Jun---marched against them in three directions with veteran soldiers.

 



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