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Chapter 085-01 유비의 죽음

第八十五回 劉先主遺詔托孤兒 諸葛亮安居平五路 

The First Ruler Confides His Son To A Guardian;
The Prime Minister Calmly Settles Five Attacks.

  卻說章武二年夏六月,東吳陸遜,大破蜀兵於猇亭彝陵之地;先主奔回白帝城,趙雲引兵據守。忽馬良至,見大軍已敗,懊悔不及,將孔明之言,奏知先主。先主歎曰:「朕早聽丞相之言,不致今日之敗!今有何面目復回成都見群臣乎!」遂傳旨就白帝城駐紮,將館驛改為永安宮。人報馮習、張南、傅彤、程畿、沙摩柯等皆歿於王事,先主傷感不已。又近臣奏稱:「黃權引江北之兵,降魏去了。陛下可將彼家屬送有司問罪。」先主曰:「黃權被吳兵隔斷在江北岸,欲歸無路,不得已降魏:是朕負權,非權負朕也。何必罪其家屬?」仍給祿米以養之。

  卻說黃權降魏,諸將引見曹丕。丕曰:「卿今降朕,欲追慕於陳、韓耶?」權泣而奏曰:「臣受蜀帝之恩殊遇甚厚,令臣督諸軍於江北,被陸遜絕斷。臣歸蜀無路,降吳不可,故來投陛下。敗軍之將,免死為幸,安敢追慕於古人耶?」丕大喜,遂拜黃權為鎮南將軍。權堅辭不受。忽近臣奏曰:「有細作人自蜀中來,說蜀主將黃權家屬盡皆誅戮。」權曰:「臣與蜀主,推誠相信,知臣本心,必不肯殺臣之家小也。」丕然之。後人有詩責黃權曰:

降吳不可卻降曹,
忠義安能事兩朝?
堪歎黃權惜一死,
紫陽書法不輕饒。

  曹丕問賈詡曰:「朕欲一統天下:先取蜀乎?先取吳乎?」詡曰:「劉備雄才,更兼諸葛亮善能治國;東吳孫權,能識虛實,陸遜見屯兵於險要隔江泛湖,皆難卒謀。以臣觀之,諸將之中,皆無孫權、劉備敵手。雖以陛下天威臨之,亦未見萬全之勢也。只可持守,以待二國之變。」

  丕曰:「朕已遣三路大兵伐吳,安有不勝之理?」尚書劉曄曰:「近東吳陸遜,新破蜀兵七十萬,上下齊心,更有江湖之阻,不可卒制。」陸遜多謀,必有準備。」丕曰:「卿前勸朕伐吳,今又諫阻,何也?」曄曰:「時有不同也:昔東吳累敗於蜀,其勢頓挫,故可擊耳;今既獲全勝,銳氣百倍,未可攻也。」

  丕曰:「朕意已決,卿勿復言。」遂引御林軍親往接應三路兵馬。早有哨馬報說東吳已有準備:令呂範引兵拒住曹休,諸葛瑾引兵在南郡拒住曹真,朱桓引兵當住濡須以拒曹仁。劉曄曰:「既有準備,去恐無益。」丕不從,引兵而去。



1 In summer, the sixth month of the second year of Manifest Might (AD 221) Lu Xun destroyed the army of Shu at Yiling. The First Ruler sought refuge in Baidicheng, of which Zhao Zilong then undertook the defense. When Ma Liang returned only to find his lord defeated, he was more distressed than he could say. He announced what Zhuge Liang had said concerning the plans.

2 The First Ruler sighed, saying, "If I had listened to the Prime Minister's advice, the defeat would not have happened. Now how can I face the officials if I return to my capital?"

3 So he promulgated a command to change the guest-house into the Palace of Eternal Peace. He was deeply grieved when they told him Feng Xi, Cheng Jin, Fu Tong, Zhang Nan, King Shamo Ke, and many of his generals had died loyally in his cause.

4 Next he heard people say: "Huang Quan, who had been given command of the army on the north bank, had given in to Wei. Your Majesty should deliver his whole family to the authority and hold them responsible for the renegade."

5 But the First Ruler only said, "The army was quite cut off by Wu from the south bank, and he had no alternative but to surrender. Really, I betrayed him, not he me. Why should I take vengeance on his family?"

6 So he continued the issue of the renegade's pay to his family.

7 When Huang Quan surrendered, he was led into the presence of the Ruler of Wei.

8 Cao Pi said, "You have surrendered to me because you desired to imitate the admirable conduct of Chen Ping and Han Xin of old."

9 But Huang Quan replied, weeping, "The Ruler of Shu has been very kind to me, and he gave me the leadership of the army on the North of the Great River. Lu Xun cut me off so that I could not return to Shu, and I would not surrender to Wu, wherefore I have yielded to Your Majesty. Defeated as I am, I should be only too happy if my life were spared, but I have no claim to the credit of the virtuous ones of old."

10 The reply satisfied the Ruler of Wei, and he conferred on him the title General Who Guards the South. But Huang Quan, however, declined the offer.

11 Then one of the courtiers said, "A spy has reported that all of your family have been put to death by the Ruler of Shu."

12 But the leader replied that he could not believe it.

13 "The Ruler of Shu and his officials trust each other. He knows my heart, and he would not injure my family."

14 And the Ruler of Wei agreed with his opinion.

15 A poem has been written upbraiding Huang Quan:

16 That was a pity that Huang Quan grudged to die; 
Though he yielded to Wei, not Wu, 
Yet he crooked the knee in an alien court. 
Which the loyal cannot do.

17 Cao Pi sought advice from Jia Xu concerning his design of bringing the whole country under his own rule.

18 "I wish to bring the whole empire under my rule. Which shall I first reduce, Shu or Wu?"

19 "Liu Bei is an able warrior, and Zhuge Liang is a most capable administrator. Sun Quan possesses discrimination, and his general, Lu Xun, occupies all the strategic positions of importance; the natural obstacles, the intervening rivers and spreading lakes, would be hard to overcome. I do not think you have any leader to match either of these two men. Even with the prestige of Your Majesty's own presence, no one could guarantee the result. The better course is to hold on and await the outcome of the struggle between those two."

20 "I have already dispatched three armies against Wu. Can it be that they will fail?"

21 The Chair of the Secretariat, Liu Ye, held the same opinion as his colleague.

22 Said he, "Lu Xun has just won a great victory over the Shu force of seven hundred thousand, and all his army is full of confidence. Further, there are the lakes and the rivers, which are natural difficulties hard to cope with. And again, Lu Xun is resourceful and well prepared."

23 The Ruler of Wei said, "Formerly, Sir, you urged me to attack Wu. Why do you now give contrary advice?"

24 "Because times have changed. When Wu was suffering defeat after defeat, the country was depressed and might be smitten. Now this great victory has changed all that, and their morale has increased a hundred times. I say now they may not be attacked."

25 "Well, but I have decided to attack. So say no more," said the Ruler of Wei.

26 He then led the Imperial Guards out to support his three armies.

27 But the scouts soon brought news justifying the opinion of his advisers: "A force of Wu has been sent to oppose each of our three armies. Lu Fan leads an army against Cao Xiu at Dongkou, Zhuge Jin against Cao Zhen at Nanjun, and Zhu Huan against Cao Ren at Ruxu."

28 Liu Ye pointed this out and again said, "Wu has prepared, and no success can be expected."

29 Still Cao Pi was obstinate, and marched.



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