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Chapter 085-03 유비의 죽음

  分付畢,傳旨召諸臣入殿,取紙筆寫了遺詔,遞與孔明而歎曰:「朕不讀書,粗知大略。聖人云:『鳥之將死,其鳴也哀;人之將死,其言也善。』朕本待與卿等同滅曹賊,共扶漢室;不幸中道而別。煩丞相將詔付與太子禪,令勿以為常言。凡事更望丞相之!」

  孔明等泣拜於地曰:「願陛下將息龍體!臣等盡施犬馬之勞,以報陛下知遇之恩也。」先主命內侍扶起孔明,一手掩淚,一手執其手,曰:「朕今死矣!有心腹之言相告!」孔明曰:「有何聖諭?」先主泣曰:「君才十倍曹丕,必能安邦定國,終定大事。若嗣子可輔,則輔之;如其不才,君可自為成都之主。」

  孔明聽畢,汗流遍體,手足失措,泣拜於地曰:「臣安敢不竭股肱之力,效忠貞之節,繼之以死乎!」言訖,叩頭流血。先主又請孔明坐於榻上,喚魯王劉永、梁王劉理近前,分付曰:「爾等皆記朕言,朕亡之後,爾兄弟三人,皆以父事丞相,不可怠慢。」言罷,遂命二王同拜孔明。二王拜畢,孔明曰:「臣雖肝腦塗地,安能報知遇之恩也!」

  先主謂眾官曰:「朕已託孤於丞相,令嗣子以父事之。卿等俱不可怠慢,以負朕望。」又囑趙雲曰:「朕與卿於患難之中,相從到今,不想於此地分別。卿可想朕故交,早晚看覷吾子,勿負朕言。」雲泣拜曰:「臣敢不效犬馬之勞!」先主又謂眾官曰:「卿等眾官,朕不能一一分囑,願皆自愛。」言畢,駕崩,壽六十三歲:時章武三年四月二十四日也。後杜工部有詩歎曰:

蜀主窺吳向三峽,崩年亦在永安宮。
翠華想在空山外,玉殿虛無野室中。
古廟杉松巢水鶴,歲時伏臘走村翁。
武侯祠屋長鄰近,一體君臣祭祀同。

  先主駕崩,文武官僚,無不哀傷,孔明率眾官奉梓宮還成都。太子劉禪出城迎接靈柩,安於正殿之內。舉哀行禮畢,開讀遺詔。詔曰:

朕初得疾,但下痢耳;後轉生雜病,殆不自濟。朕聞「人年五十,不稱夭壽」。今朕六十有餘,死復何恨。但以汝兄弟為念耳。勉之!勉之!勿以惡小而為之,勿以善小而不為。惟賢惟德可以服人;汝父德薄,不足效也,吾亡之後,汝與丞相從事,事之如父,勿怠!勿忘!汝兄弟更求聞達,至囑!至囑!
  群臣讀詔已畢。孔明曰:「『國不可一日無君』請立嗣君,以承漢統。」乃立太子禪即皇帝諡位,改元建興。加諸葛亮為武鄉侯,領益州牧。葬先主於惠陵,諡曰昭烈皇帝。尊皇后吳氏為皇太后。甘夫人為昭烈皇后。糜夫人亦追諡為皇后。陞賞群臣,大郝天下。

  早有魏軍探知此事,報入中原。近臣奏知魏主。曹丕大喜曰:「劉備已亡,朕無憂矣。何不乘其國中無主,起兵伐之?」賈詡諫曰:「劉備亡,必託孤於諸葛亮。亮感備知遇之恩,必傾心竭力,扶持嗣主。陛下不可倉卒伐之。」


57 Having said this, he bade them summon the high officers of state to the chamber. Taking paper and pen, the First Ruler wrote his testament.

58 He handed it to the Prime Minister with a sigh and said, "I am no great scholar, and I only know the rough outlines of what should be known. But the Teacher has said: 'A bird's song is sad when death is near, and a dying person's words are good.' I was waiting that we might aid each other in the destruction of the Caos and the restoration of the Hans, but ere the work is complete I am called away, and this last command of mine I confide to you as Prime Minister to be handed to my son and heir, Liu Shan. My words are to be taken seriously. I trust that you will instruct and guide my son."

59 Zhuge Liang and all those present wept and prostrated themselves, saying, "We pray Your Majesty repose yourself. We will do our utmost whereby to prove our gratitude for the kindness we have received."

60 At the First Ruler's command the attendants raised Zhuge Liang from the earth. With one hand the dying man brushed away the falling tears, while with the other he grasped Zhuge Liang's hand.

61 And he said, "The end is near. I have something more to say as to a close general."

62 "What holy command has Your Majesty to give?" said Zhuge Liang.

63 The First Ruler said, "You are many times more clever than Cao Pi, and you must safeguard the kingdom and complete the great work. If my son can be helped, help him. But if he proves a fool, then take the throne yourself and be a ruler."

64 Such a speech almost startled Zhuge Liang out of his senses. A cold sweat broke out all over his body, and his limbs threatened to cease to support him.

65 He fell on his knees, saying, "I could never do otherwise than wear myself to the bone in the service of your son, whom I will serve till death."

66 He knocked his head upon the ground till blood ran down.

67 The dying man called Zhuge Liang closer, and at the same time making his two sons come near, he said to them, "My sons, remember your father's words. After my death you are to treat the Prime Minister as you would your father and be not remiss, for thereby you will fulfill your father's hopes."

68 He made the two Princes pay to Zhuge Liang the obeisance due to a father.

69 Said Zhuge Liang, "Were I destroyed and ground into the earth, I should be unable to repay the kindness I have experienced."

70 Turning to the assembled officers, the First Ruler said, "As you have seen, I have confided my orphan son to the care of the Prime Minister and bidden my sons treat him as a father. You too, Sirs, are to treat him with deference. This is my dying request and charge to you."

71 Turning to Zhao Zilong, he said, "You and I have gone together through many dangers and difficulties. Now comes the parting of our ways. You will not forget our old friendship, and you must see to it that my sons follow my precepts."

72 "I shall never dare to give other than my best," said Zhao Zilong. "The fidelity of the dog and horse is mine to give and shall be theirs."

73 Then the First Ruler turned to the others, "Noble Sirs, I am unable to speak to you one by one and lay a charge upon each individual. But I say to you: Maintain your self-respect."

74 These were his last words. He was sixty-three, and he died on the twenty-fourth day of the fourth month (AD 222). A poem was written by Du Fu on his death:

75 The Emperor set out to destroy the land that lay through the Three Gorges, 
Failed he and breathed his last in the Palace of Eternal Peace, 
The Palace fair of his thoughts lay not this side the highlands. 
Beautiful chambers are vainly sought in his rural temple, 
Now are the pines near his shrine nesting places for herons, 
Through the courts aged peasants saunter, enjoying their leisure, 
Nearby often is found a shrine to this famous strategist, 
Prince and minister's needs are now but offerings in season.

76 Thus died the First Ruler. All present lifted up their voices and wept.

77 The Prime Minister led the procession that escorted the coffin to the capital, and the heir, Liu Shan, came to the outskirts of the city, as a dutiful son should, to receive the remains with due respect. The coffin was laid in the Great Hall of the Palace, wherein they lamented and performed the ceremonies appointed. At the end of these the testament was opened and read:

78 "I first fell ill from a simple ailment. Other disorders followed, and it became evident that I should not recover.

79 "They say that death at fifty cannot be called premature. As I have passed sixty, I may not resent the call. But when I think of you and your brothers, I regret. Now I say to you, strive and strive again. Do not do evil because it is a small evil; do not leave undone a small good because it is a small good. Only with wisdom and virtue people can be won. But your father's virtue was but slender, and do not imitate.

80 "After my death you are to conduct the affairs of the state with the Prime Minister. You are to treat him as a father and serve him without remissness. You and your brothers are to seek instructions. This is my final and simple command."

81 When the officials had read this, Zhuge Liang said, "The state cannot go a single day without a ruler, wherefore I beg you to install the heir as successor to the great line of Han."

82 Thereupon the ceremony was performed, and the new Emperor took his place. The style of the reign was changed to "Beginning Prosperity". Zhuge Liang was made Lord of Wuxiang and Imperial Protector of Yizhou.

83 Then they buried the late Emperor at Huiling with the posthumous style of Liu Bei the Glorious Emperor.

84 The Empress, of the Wu family, was formally created Empress Dowager. The late Consort Gan became the Glorious Empress, and the Lady Mi was granted similar, also posthumous, rank. There were promotions in rank and rewards for all, and a general amnesty was proclaimed.

85 Before long, knowledge of these things came to the Middle Land, and a report was sent to Capital Luoyang and made known to the Ruler of Wei.

86 Cao Pi felt relieved and was glad of the death of his rival, saying, "Liu Bei is dead: I am no longer worried. An attack during the critical moment can bring a victory over Shu."

87 But Jia Xu dissuaded him, saying, "Liu Bei is gone, but surely he has confided the care of the state to Zhuge Liang, who is indebted to him so deeply. He will exhaust every effort to support his young lord. You may not hastily attack."




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