삼국지 인물 찾아보기

Chapter 091-04 출사표 

  卻說細作探知此事,報入川中。孔明聞之大喜曰:「吾欲伐魏久矣,奈有司馬懿總雍、涼之兵。今既中計遭貶,吾有何憂!」次日,後主早朝,大會官僚,孔明出班,上《出師表》一道。表曰:

臣亮言:先帝創業未半,而中道崩殂,今天下三分,益州罷敝,此誠危急存亡之秋也。然侍衛之臣,不懈於內;忠志之士,忘身於外者,蓋追先帝之殊遇,欲報之於陛下也。誠宜開張聖聽,以光先帝遺德,恢弘志士之氣,不宜妄自菲薄,引喻失義,以塞忠諫之路也。宮中府中,俱為一體,陟罰臧否,不宜異同。若有作奸犯科,及為忠善者,宜付有司,論其刑賞,以昭陛下平明之治,不宜偏私,使內外異法也。
侍中、侍郎郭攸之、費禕、董允等,此皆良實,志慮忠純,是以先帝簡拔以遺陛下。愚以為宮中之事,事無大小,悉以咨之,然後施行,必得裨補闕漏,有所廣益。將軍向寵,性行淑均,曉暢軍事,試用之於昔日,先帝稱之曰能,是以衆議舉寵以為督。愚以為營中之事,事無大小,悉以咨之,必能使行陣和穆,優劣得所也。
親賢臣,遠小人,此先漢所以興隆也;親小人,遠賢臣,此後漢所以傾頹也。先帝在時,每與臣論此事,未嘗不歎息痛恨於桓、靈也。侍中、尚書、長史、參軍,此悉貞亮死節之臣也,願陛下親之信之,則漢室之隆,可計日而待也。
臣本布衣,躬耕南陽,苟全性命於亂世,不求聞達於諸侯。先帝不以臣卑鄙,猥自枉屈,三顧臣於草廬之中,諮臣以當世之事,由是感激,遂許先帝以驅馳。後值傾覆,受任於敗軍之際,奉命於危難之間,爾來二十有一年矣。先帝知臣謹慎,故臨危寄臣以大事也。
受命以來,夙夜憂慮,恐付託不效,以傷先帝之明,故五月渡瀘,深入不毛。今南方已定,甲兵已足,當獎帥三軍,北定中原,庶竭弩鈍,攘除奸凶,興復漢室,還於舊都:此臣所以報先帝而忠陛下之職分也。至於斟酌損益,進盡忠言,則攸之、禕、允之任也。願陛下託臣以討賊興複之效;不效,則治臣之罪,以告先帝之靈。若無興復之言,則責攸之、禕、允等之咨,以彰其慢。陛下亦宜自謀,以諮諏善道,察納雅言,深追先帝遺詔,臣不勝受恩感激!今當遠離,臨表涕泣,不知所云。
  後主覽表曰:「相父南征,遠涉艱難;方始回都,坐未安席;今又欲北征,恐勞神思。」孔明曰:「臣受先帝托孤之重,夙夜未嘗有怠。今南方已平,可無內顧之憂,不就此時討賊,恢復中原,更待何日?」忽班部中太史譙周出奏曰:「臣夜觀天象,北方旺氣正盛,星曜倍明,未可圖也。」乃顧孔明曰:「丞相深明天文,何故強為?」孔明曰:「天道變易不常,豈可拘執?吾今且駐軍馬於漢中,觀其動靜而後行。」譙周苦諫不從。

  於是孔明乃留郭攸之、董允、費禕等為侍中,總攝宮中之事;又留向寵為大將,總督御林軍馬; 陳震為侍中, 蔣琬為參軍,張裔為長史,掌丞相府事;杜瓊為諫議大夫;杜微、楊洪為尚書;孟光、來敏為祭酒;尹默、李譔為博士;郤正、費詩為秘書;譙周為太史:內外文武官僚一百餘員,同理蜀中之事。孔明受詔歸府,喚諸將聽令:前督部,鎮北將軍、領丞相司馬、涼州刺史、都亭侯魏延;前軍都督,領扶風太守張翼;牙門將,裨將軍王平;後軍領兵使,安漢將軍、領建寧太守李恢,副將,定遠將軍、領漢中太守呂義;兼管運糧左軍領兵使,平北將軍、陳倉侯馬岱;副將,飛衛將軍廖化;右軍領兵使,奮威將軍、博陽亭侯馬忠;撫戎將軍、關內侯張嶷;行中軍師,車騎大將軍、都鄉侯劉琰;中監軍,揚武將軍鄧芝;中參軍,安遠將軍馬謖;前將軍,都亭侯袁綝;左將軍,高陽侯吳懿;右將軍,玄都侯高翔;後將軍,安樂侯吳班;領長史,綏軍將軍楊儀;前將軍,征南將軍劉巴;前護軍,偏將軍、漢城亭侯許允;左護軍,篤信中郎將丁咸;右護軍,偏將軍劉致;後護軍,典軍中郎將官雝;行參軍,昭武中郎將胡濟;行參軍,諫議將軍閻晏;行參軍,偏將軍爨習;行參軍,裨將軍杜義、武略中郎將杜祺、綏戎都尉盛勃;從事,武略中郎將樊岐;典軍書記樊建;丞相令史董厥;帳前左護衛使,龍驤將軍關興;右護衛使,虎翼將軍張苞。以上一應官員,都隨著平北大都督、丞相、武鄉侯、領益州牧、知內外事諸葛亮。


73 The news was soon reported to Shu. Zhuge Liang rejoiced when they told him of the success that had attended the ruse.

74 "Sima Yi and the forces he commanded in Yongzhou and Liangzhou have been the obstacles in my long-wished-for attack on Wei. Now he has fallen, I have no more anxiety."

75 At the first great assembly of officers at court, Zhuge Liang stepped forth and presented to the Ruler of Shu a memorial on the expedition he contemplated.

76 "The First Ruler had accomplished but half his great task at his death. At this moment the empire is in three parts, and our country is weak; it is a most critical moment for us. Still, ministers are not remiss in the capital, and loyal and devoted soldiers sacrifice their lives abroad, for they still remember the special kindness of the First Ruler and wish to show their gratitude to him by service to Your Majesty. Therefore it would be indeed fitting that you should extend your holy virtue to glorify his virtuous memory in the stimulation of the will of your purposeful officers. Your Majesty should not lose yourself in the pursuit of mean things, quoting phrases to confound the eternal principles of rectitude, and so preventing remonstrance from honest people. One rule applies to the palace of the Emperor and the residence of a courtier; there must be one law rewarding the good and punishing the evil. Evil-doers and law-breakers, as also true and good people, should be dealt with according to their deserts by the officers concerned in order to manifest Your Majesty's impartial and enlightened administration. Partiality is wrong, as is one law for the court and another for the regions.

77 "The High Ministers Fei Yi, Guo Youzhi, and Dong Yun are honest men, devotedly anxious to be loyal to the last degree; wherefore His Late Majesty chose them in his testament. My advice is to consult them in all Palace matters, great or small, before taking action. Your Majesty will reap the enormous advantage of having any failings corrected.

78 "General Xiang Chong is a man of well-balanced temperament, versed in military matters, to whom, after testing him, the late Emperor applied the epithet 'capable'. The consensus of opinion is that Xiang Chong should be Grand Commander. My advice is to consult him in all military matters, great or small, whereby your military forces will yield their maximum, each one being employed to the best advantage.

79 "Attract worthy people; repel mean ones. This policy achieved the glory of the Former Hans, while its reversal ruined the Latter Hans. When the late Emperor was with us, he often discussed this with your servant, and he took much to heart the story of Emperors Huan and Ling.

80 "The Chair of the Secretariat Chen Zhen, Commander Zhang Si, and Minister Jiang Wan are all incorruptible and enlightened people, honest to the death. I wish that Your Majesty should have them near and hold them in confidence. If this be done, then the glory of the House of Han will be quickly consummated.

81 "I was originally a private person, a farmer in Nanyang, concerned only to secure personal safety in a troubled age and not seeking conversation with the contending nobles. His Late Majesty, the First Ruler, overlooking the commonness of my origin, condescended to seek me thrice in my humble cot and consult me on the trend of events. His magnanimity affected me deeply, and I consented to do my utmost for him. Then came defeat, and I took office at a moment of darkest outlook and at a most difficult crisis. This is twenty-one years ago. The First Ruler recognized my diligent care, and when dying he confided the great task to me. From that day I have lived a life of anxiety lest I should fail in my trust and so dim his glory.

82 "That is why I undertook the expedition to the lands beyond the River Lu. Now the Southern Mangs has been quelled, and our army is in good condition. I ought to lead it against the north, where I may meet with a measure of success in the removal of the wicked ones, the restoration of Han, and a return to the old capital. This is my duty out of gratitude to the late Emperor and loyalty to Your Majesty. As to a discussion of the pros and cons and giving a true version of the whole matter, that belongs to Guo Youzhi and Fei Yi and Dong Yun. I desire Your Majesty to confide to me the task of slaying the rebels and restoring the Hans. If I fail, then punish me by telling the spirit of the late Emperor. If you know not what restoration implies, that is the fault of your advisers.

83 "Your Majesty should take pains to be guided into the right path and examine carefully what is laid before you, carefully remembering the late Emperor's testament.

84 "I cannot express what would be my delight if you had the goodness to accept and act on my advice.

85 "Now I am about to depart on a distant expedition, I write this with tears, and in deep emotions, beyond my words."

86 The Emperor read it through and said, "My Father Minister, you have only just returned from a distant and fatiguing expedition against the Southern Mangs. You are not yet refreshed, and I fear this march to the north will be almost too much even for you."

87 Zhuge Liang replied, "The heaviest responsibility lies upon me, the well-being of Your Majesty confided to me by the First Ruler. My efforts may not be relaxed night or day. The south is at rest, at home is no anxiety. What better time could be hoped for to destroy the rebels and recover the Middle Land?"

88 Forth from the ranks of courtiers stood Minister Qiao Zhou and said, "I have studied the aspect of the stars. The northern quarter is brilliant and strong. The scheme will not speed."

89 Then turning toward the Prime Minister, he continued, "You, O Prime Minister, understand the mysteries of the skies. Why do you oppose the stars?"

90 "Because the stars are in infinite changes," replied Zhuge Liang. "One may rely on the stars too much. Moreover, I have already sent the army into Hanzhong, where I shall act as soon as I have studied what is afoot."

91 Qiao Zhou pleaded in vain. Zhuge Liang was too strongly set upon his purpose to yield. So Guo Youzhi, Dong Yun, and Fei Yi were ordered to attend to matters in the Palace; Xiang Chong was to control all military affairs and became Grand Commander; Jiang Wan was made Military Adviser; Chen Zhen became Chair of the Secretariat; Zhang Si, Controller of the Prime Minister's palace; Du Qiong, Imperial Censor; Du Wei and Yang Hong, Ministers; Meng Guang and Lai Min, Libationers; Yin Mo and Li Zhuan, Academicians; Xi Zheng and Fei Shi, General Secretaries; Qiao Zhou, Chief Secretary; and others to the number of over a hundred, all to manage the administration of Shu in the absence of Zhuge Liang.


92 Having received his Emperor's command to lead an expedition against the north, Zhuge Liang returned to his palace and summoned the officers of the army to listen to the orders. And they came, and to each was appointed a duty in the great army:

93 Front Army Commander---Wei Yan 
Front Army Marching Generals---Zhang Yi, Wang Ping 
Rear Army Commander---Li Hui 
Rear Army Marching General---Lu Yin 
Left Army Commander and Chief of the Commissariat---Ma Dai 
Left Army Marching General---Zhang Ni 
Right Army Commander---Ma Zheng 
Right Army Marching General---Deng Zhi 
Center Army Director---Liu Yang 
Center Army Marching Generals---Liao Hua, Hu Ji 
Center Army Front Generals---Yuan Lin, Liu Ba, Xu Yun 
Center Army Rear General---Hu Ban 
Center Army Left Generals---Wu Yi, Ding Xian 
Center Army Right Generals---Gao Xiang, Guan Yong, Liu Min 
Center Army Center Generals---Du Qi, Sheng Bo, Fan Qi 
Advisers---Ma Su, Yang Yi, Cuan Xi, Du Yi 
Secretaries---Fan Jian, Dong Jue 
Left Guard---Guan Xing 
Right Guard---Zhang Bao 
Inspector---Yan Yan

94 Li Yan was given the task of guarding the passes against Wu from the southeast.

95 Zhuge Liang was the Commander-in-Chief of the Northern Expedition.




소설 三國演義
第001 - 019回 桃園結義, 除董卓, 三讓徐州, 斬呂布
第020 - 038回 煮酒論英雄, 千里走單騎, 滅袁紹, 三顧茅廬
第039 - 059回 長板坡, 赤壁之戰, 三氣周瑜, 戰馬超
第060 - 080回 入西川, 逍遙津, 取漢中, 失荊州, 魏蜀稱帝
第081 - 105回 彝陵之戰, 七擒孟獲, 六出祁山,
第106 - 120回 九伐中原, 破西蜀, 三分歸一統