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Chapter 119-04 사마염의 찬탈

  卻說朝中大臣因昭收蜀有功,遂尊之為王,表奏魏主曹奐。時奐名為天子,實不能主張,政皆由司馬氏,不敢不從,遂封晉公司馬昭為晉王,諡父司馬懿為宣王,兄司馬師為景王。昭妻王元姬[11],乃王肅之女,生五子一女[12]:長曰司馬炎、次曰司馬定國,次曰司馬攸,次曰司馬兆,次曰司馬廣德,女曰京兆公主。長子司馬炎,人物魁偉,立髮垂地,兩手過膝,聰明英武,膽量過人;三子司馬攸,性情溫和,恭儉孝悌,昭甚愛之,因司馬師無子,嗣攸以繼其後。昭常曰:「天下者,乃吾兄之天下也。」於是司馬昭受封晉王,欲立攸為世子。山濤諫曰:「廢長立幼,違禮不祥。」賈充、何曾、裴秀亦諫曰:「長子聰明神武,有超世之才;人望既茂,天表如此,非人臣之相也。」昭猶豫未決,太尉王祥、司空荀顗諫曰:「前代立少,多致亂國。願殿下思之。」昭遂立長子司馬炎為世子。

  大臣奏稱:「當年襄武縣,天降一人,身長二丈餘,腳跡長三尺二寸,白髮蒼髯,著黃單衣,裹黃巾,拄藜頭杖,自稱曰:『吾乃民王也。今來報汝:天下換王,立見太平。』如此在市遊行三日,忽然不見。此乃殿下之瑞也。殿下可戴二十旒冠冕,建天子旌旗,出警入蹕,乘金根車,備六馬,進王妃為王后,立世子為太子。」昭心中暗喜;回到宮中,正欲飲酒,忽中風不語。次日病危,太尉王祥、司徒何曾、司馬荀顗及諸大臣入宮問安,昭不能言,以手指太子司馬炎而死。時八月辛卯日也。何曾曰:「天下大事,皆在晉王;可立太子為晉王,然後祭葬。」是日司馬炎即晉王位,封何曾為晉丞相,司馬望為司徒,石苞為驃騎將軍,陳騫為車騎將軍,王沈為御史大夫[13],賈充為衛將軍,裴秀為尚書令,諡父為文王。

  安葬已畢,炎召賈充、裴秀入宮問曰:「曹操曾云:『若天命在吾,吾其為周文王乎?』果有此事否?」充曰:「操世受漢祿,恐人議論篡逆之名,故出此言;乃明教曹丕為天子也。」炎曰:「孤父王比曹操何如?」充曰:「操雖功蓋華夏,下民畏其威而不懷其德。子丕繼業,差役甚重,東西驅馳,未有寧歲。後我宣王、景王,累建大功,布恩施德,天下歸心久矣。文王併吞西蜀,功蓋寰宇,又豈操之可比乎?」炎曰:「曹丕尚紹漢統,孤豈不可紹魏統耶?」賈充、裴秀二人再拜而奏曰:「殿下正當法曹丕紹漢故事,復築受禪臺,布告天下,以即大位。」

  炎大喜,次日帶劍入內。此時魏主曹奐,連日不曾設朝,心神恍惚,舉止失措。炎直入後宮,奐慌下御榻而迎。炎坐定問曰:「魏之天下,誰之力也?」奐曰:「皆晉王父祖之賜耳。」炎笑曰:「吾觀陛下,文不能論道,武不能經邦,何不讓有才德者主之?」奐大驚,口噤不能言。傍有黃門侍郎張節大喝曰:「晉王之言差矣!昔日太祖武皇帝[14],東蕩西除,南征北討,非容易得此天下;今天子有德無罪,何故讓與人耶?」炎大怒曰:「此社稷乃大漢之社稷也。曹操挾天子以令諸侯,自立魏王,篡奪漢室,吾祖父三世輔魏,得天下者,非曹氏之能,實司馬氏之力也。四海咸知,吾今日豈不堪紹魏之天下乎?」節又曰:「欲行此事,是篡國之賊也!」炎大怒曰:「吾與漢家報讎,有何不可!」叱武士將張節亂棍打死於殿下。奐泣淚跪告。炎起身下殿而去。奐謂賈充、裴秀曰:「事已急矣,如之奈何?」充曰:「天數盡矣,陛下不可逆天,當照漢獻帝故事,重修受禪臺,具大禮,禪位與晉王。上合天心,下順民情,陛下可保無虞矣。」奐從之,遂令賈充築受禪臺。以十二月十五日甲子,奐親捧傳國璽,立於臺上,大會文武。後人有詩嘆曰:

魏吞漢室晉吞曹,
天運循環不可逃。
張節可憐忠國死,
一拳怎障泰山高?



105 The courtiers thought that so grand an exploit as the conquest of the River Lands was worthy of high honor, so they memorialized the Ruler of Wei, Cao Huang, to confer the rank Prince of Jin on Sima Zhao. At that time, Cao Huang ruled in name only, for he had no authority. The whole land was under Sima Zhao, whose will the Emperor himself dared not cross. And so, in due course, the Duke of Jin became Prince of Jin.

106 After being made Prince of Jin, Sima Zhao posthumously created his father, Sima Yi, the Original Prince and his late elder brother, Sima Shi, the Wonderful Prince.

107 The wife of Sima Zhao was the daughter of Wang Su. She bore to him two sons, the elder of whom was named Sima Yan. Sima Yan was huge of frame, his flowing hair reached to the ground when he stood up, and both hands hung down below his knees. He was clever, brave, and skilled in the use of arms.

108 The second son, Sima You, was mild of disposition, a filial son and a dutiful brother. His father loved him dearly. As Sima Shi had died without leaving sons, this youth, Sima You, was regarded as his son, to continue that line of the family.

109 Sima Zhao used to say: "The empire was really my brother's."

110 Becoming a prince, it was necessary for Sima Zhao to choose his heir, and he wished to name his younger son Sima You. But Shan Tao remonstrated.

111 "It is improper and infelicitous to prefer the younger," said Shan Tao.

112 And Jia Chong, He Zeng, and Pei Xiu followed in the same strain.
113 "The elder is clever, able in war, one of the most talented people in the state and popular. With such natural advantages he has a great destiny: He was not born to serve."

114 Sima Zhao hesitated, for he was still unwilling to abandon his desire.

115 But two other officers---Grand Commander Wang Xiang and Minister of Works Xun Kai---also remonstrated, saying, "Certain former dynasties have preferred the younger before the elder and rebellion has generally followed. We pray you reflect upon these cases."

116 Finally Sima Zhao yielded and named his elder son Sima Yan as his successor.

117 Certain officers memorialized: "This year a gigantic figure of a man descended from heaven in Xiangwu. His height was twenty feet and his footprint measured over three feet. He had white hair and a hoary beard. He wore an unlined yellow robe and a yellow cape. He walked leaning on a black-handled staff. This extraordinary man preached, saying, 'I am the king of the people, and now I come to tell you of a change of ruler and the coming of peace.' He wandered about for three days and then disappeared. Evidently this portent refers to yourself, Noble Sir, and now you should assume the imperial headdress with twelve strings of pearls, set up the imperial standard, and have the roads cleared when you make a progress. You should ride in the golden-shafted chariot with six horses. Your consort should be styled 'Empress' and your heir 'Apparent'."

118 Sima Zhao was greatly pleased. He returned to his palace, but just as he was sitting down, he was suddenly seized with paralysis and lost the use of his tongue. He quickly grew worse. His three chief confidants, Wang Xiang, He Zeng, and Xun Kai, together with many court officials, came to inquire after his health, but he could not speak to them. He pointed toward the heir apparent, Sima Yan, and died. It was the eighth month of that year.

119 Then said He Zeng, "The care of the empire devolves upon the Prince of Jin: Let us induct the heir. Then we can perform the sacrifices to the late prince."

120 Thereupon Sima Yan was set up in his father's place. He gave He Zeng the title of Prime Minister; Sima Wang, Minister of the Interior; Shi Bao, Commander of the Flying Cavalry; and conferred many other titles and ranks. The posthumous title of the "Scholar Prince" was conferred upon his late father.

121 When the obsequies were finished, Sima Yan summoned Jia Chong and Pei Xiu into the Palace, and said, "Cao Cao said that if the celestial mandate rested upon him, he could be no more than King Wen of Zhou, who served as a regent only. Is this really so?"

122 Jia Chong replied, "Cao Cao was in the service of Han and feared lest posterity should reproach him with usurpation. Wherefore he spoke thus. Nevertheless he caused Cao Pi to become Emperor."

123 "How did my father compare with Cao Cao?" asked Sima Yan.

124 "Although Cao Cao was universally successful, yet the people feared him and credited him with no virtue. Cao Pi's rule was marked by strife and lack of tranquillity. No single year was peaceful. Later the Original Prince and Wonderful Prince of your line rendered great services and disseminated compassion and virtue, so that they were beloved. Your late father overcame Shu in the west and was universally renowned. Comparison with Cao Cao is impossible."

125 "Still Cao Pi succeeded the rule of Han. Can I not in like manner succeed that of Wei?"

126 Jia Chong and Pei Xiu bowed low and said, "Cao Pi's action may be taken as a precedent to succeed an older dynasty. Wherefore prepare an abdication terrace to make the great declaration."

127 Sima Yan resolved to act promptly. Next day he entered the Forbidden City armed with a sword. No court had been held for many days, for Cao Huang was ill at ease and full of dread. When Sima Yan appeared, the Ruler of Wei left his place and advanced to met him. Sima Yan sat down.

128 "By whose merits did Wei succeed to empire?" he asked suddenly.

129 "Certainly success was due to your forefathers," replied Cao Huang.

130 Sima Yan smiled, saying, "Your Majesty is unskilled in debate, inept in war, and unfit to rule. Why not give place to another more able and virtuous?"

131 Cao Huang's lips refused a reply.

132 But Zhang Jie, one of the ministers, cried, "You are wrong to speak thus, O Prince. His Majesty's ancestor conquered east and west, north and south, and won the empire by strenuous effort. The present Emperor is virtuous and without fault. Why should he yield place to another?"

133 Sima Yan replied angrily, "The imperial right lay with the Hans, and Cao Cao coerced them as he did the nobles. In making himself the Prince of Wei, he usurped the Throne of Han. Three generations of my forefathers upheld the House of Wei, so that their power is not the result of their own abilities, but of the labor of my house. This is known to all the world, and am I not equal to carrying on the rule of Wei?"

134 "If you do this thing, you will be a rebel and an usurper," said Zhang Jie.

135 "And what shall I be if I avenge the wrongs of Han?"

136 He bade the lictors take Zhang Jie outside and beat him to death, while the Ruler of Wei wept and besought pardon for his faithful minister.

137 Sima Yan rose and left.

138 Cao Huang turned to Jia Chong and Pei Xiu, saying, "What should I do? Some decision must be taken."
139 They replied, "Truth to tell, the measure of your fate is accomplished and you cannot oppose the will of Heaven. You must prepare to abdicate as did Emperor Xian of the Hans. Resign the throne to the Prince of Jin and thereby accord with the design of Heaven and the will of the people. Your personal safety need not cause you anxiety."

140 Cao Huang could only accept this advice, and the terrace was built. The "mouse" day of the twelfth month was chosen for the ceremony. On that day the Ruler of Wei, dressed in full robes of ceremony, and bearing the seal in his hand, ascended the terrace in the presence of a great assembly.


141 The House of Wei displaced the House of Han 
And Jin succeeded Wei; so turns fate's wheel 
And none escape its grinding. Zhang Jie the true 
Stood in the way and died. We pity him. 
Vain hope with one hand to hide Taishan Mountains.



소설 三國演義
第001 - 019回 桃園結義, 除董卓, 三讓徐州, 斬呂布
第020 - 038回 煮酒論英雄, 千里走單騎, 滅袁紹, 三顧茅廬
第039 - 059回 長板坡, 赤壁之戰, 三氣周瑜, 戰馬超
第060 - 080回 入西川, 逍遙津, 取漢中, 失荊州, 魏蜀稱帝
第081 - 105回 彝陵之戰, 七擒孟獲, 六出祁山,
第106 - 120回 九伐中原, 破西蜀, 三分歸一統